The Holocene encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present.
Human impacts on modern-era Earth and its ecosystems may be considered of global significance for future evolution of living species, including approximately synchronous lithospheric evidence, or more recently atmospheric evidence of human impacts.
The scheme was defined for Northern Europe, but the climate changes were claimed to occur more widely.
The periods of the scheme include a few of the final pre-Holocene oscillations of the last glacial period and then classify climates of more recent prehistory.
This was followed by the Little Ice Age, from the 13th or 14th century to the mid-19th century, which was a period of cooling.It appears that this was influenced by the residual glacial ice remaining in the Northern Hemisphere until the later date.The Holocene climatic optimum (HCO) was a period of warming in which the global climate became warmer.Other than higher-latitude temporary marine incursions associated with glacial depression, Holocene fossils are found primarily in lakebed, floodplain, and cave deposits.Holocene marine deposits along low-latitude coastlines are rare because the rise in sea levels during the period exceeds any likely tectonic uplift of non-glacial origin.